Operating Agreement Drafting Considerations: Removal of a Member

When establishing a multi-member limited liability company, it is important to plan for the worst. It may seem cynical to think about the end before the beginning, but every company has a half-life. And while relationships at the outset of any venture are typically strong, it often becomes necessary to remove or dissociate a member who is negatively impacting those relationships—or even the business. If no protection is built into the organizational documents, the members’ recourse is limited to circumstances . . . Read More

Ratification of Defective Corporate Actions Under the Virginia Stock Corporation Act

In 2019, the Commonwealth of Virginia adopted a variety of amendments to the Virginia Stock Corporation Act (VSCA). While many of those amendments are already effective, some of the amendments will go into effect on July 1, 2021, including those addressing how a corporation may ratify defective corporation actions. These new provisions provide corporations with vital tools to ensure that actions taken by the corporation, which might otherwise be found to be void or voidable under Virginia law, are valid . . . Read More

5 Fundamentals of the Corporate Transparency Act: Impacts on Small Businesses

On January 1, 2021, Congress enacted the 2021 National Defense Authorization Act. In an effort to strengthen the fight against money laundering and the funding of terrorist activities, it included broad amendments to the U.S. Anti-Money Laundering Act, the most significant of which was the Corporate Transparency Act (CTA). The CTA will greatly impact the way businesses are formed and how they operate, and it will require regular reporting practices that businesses need to prepare for before the CTA takes effect. Below are . . . Read More

Federal Trade Commission Updates HSR Thresholds

The Hart-Scott-Rodino Antitrust Improvements Act of 1976, as amended (HSR Act) requires that certain mergers, acquisitions, and joint ventures be cleared by the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) and the Antitrust Division of the Department of Justice (DOJ) if they exceed certain valuation and monetary thresholds. If your transaction exceeds the HSR thresholds, and therefore requires antitrust scrutiny, this can materially alter the structure and timing of the proposed transaction. Pursuant to the HSR Act, the FTC is required annually to . . . Read More

SBA Provides Direction for PPP Round Deux Loans and Second Draw Loans

On January 6, 2021, the Small Business Administration (SBA) issued its first round of formal guidance for the new Paycheck Protection Program (PPP) and the second-draw PPP loans, which we first discussed here . SBA also gave some indication of plans for the second round of the PPP. SBA’s guidance can be found here for the next phase of PPP and here for the second-draw program. Below are key updates for businesses that need access to this important source of relief funding. As . . . Read More

Purchase Agreement Components, Part 2: Indemnification Provisions

In an acquisition, particularly an equity acquisition, a buyer must perform extensive due diligence on the target company to understand, as thoroughly as possible, the risks associated with the acquisition. In most cases, however, the buyer cannot fully evaluate or even identify all sources of risk that it will assume post-closing. To address these uncertainties and allocate these potential risks, the buyer and seller negotiate indemnification provisions that set forth the scope of each party’s obligation to reimburse the other . . . Read More

PPP Round Deux: Who Qualifies, For How Much, and Forgiveness Changes

While the President vetoed the 2021 NDAA—and has put COVID relief into question—he has not yet acted on the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2021, which contained the Economic Aid to Hard-Hit Small Businesses, Nonprofits, and Venues Act (the Act) dealing with the second round of PPP Loans.  So, while the Act may be in jeopardy of a veto also, it has not yet occurred and, regardless, it is likely many of the PPP Loan provisions contained in the Act will be . . . Read More

Unsure Whether You’ll Lose Tax Deductions for a Forgiven PPP Loan? Wait Until 2021 to File for Forgiveness

As it hashes out the details of the next COVID-19 relief package, Congress is facing pressure from business groups to allow businesses to write off expenses covered by forgiven Paycheck Protection Program (PPP) loans. The groups explain that, without write offs, “millions of small businesses . . . will face a surprising, and, in many cases, insurmountable tax bill next year.” We have received questions about the quagmire of regulations covering tax treatment for businesses when PPP loan balances are forgiven. . . . Read More

Got Millennials? Two New Trends for Private Company Boards of Directors

Recent trends in corporate governance best practices for privately held companies show a shift away from the previous view of Boards of Directors solely as a formality. Increasingly, private companies are realizing the value of boards as a powerful strategic tool to achieve a more cohesive, efficient, and valuable company. Drawing from governance and reporting requirements for public companies under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, private companies are creating their own governance structures that mirror those of publicly traded companies, . . . Read More

SBA Releases Loan Necessity Questionnaire for PPP Borrowers

On October 26, 2020, the Small Business Administration (SBA) issued a notice in the Federal Register that, among other updates, announced two new forms, 3509 and 3510 (the Forms),  related to the Paycheck Protection Program (PPP).  Form 3509 is for for-profit businesses, while 3510 applies only to non-profit entities.  These Forms will be sent by PPP lenders only to PPP borrowers who received a principal loan amount of $2 million or more, and borrowers will have ten days to complete it.  According to . . . Read More